What is SKIN TONER
In cosmetics, skin toner or simply toner refers to a lotion or wash designed to cleanse the skin and shrink the appearance of pores, usually used on the face. Toners can be applied to the skin in different ways:
- On a cotton round. (This is the most frequently used method.)
- Spraying onto the face.
- By applying a tonic gauze facial mask—a piece of gauze is covered with toner and left on the face for a few minutes.
Some toners may cause some irritation to the skin if never used before. Users often apply serum and moisturiser after the toner has dried.
Types of toners
Skin bracers or fresheners
These are the mildest form of toners; they contain water and a humectant such as glycerine, and little if any alcohol (0–10%). Humectants help to keep the moisture in the upper layers of the epidermis by preventing it from evaporating. A popular example of this is rosewater.
These toners are the gentlest to the skin, and are most suitable for use on dry, dehydrated, sensitive and normal skins. It may give a burning sensation to sensitive skin.
These are slightly stronger and contain a small quantity of alcohol (up to 20%), water and a humectant ingredient. Orange flower water is an example of a skin tonic. Skin tonics are suitable for use on normal, combination, and oily skin.
These are a strong form of toner that typically contains alpha hydroxy acid and or beta hydroxy acid. Acid toners are formulated with the intent of chemically exfoliating the skin instead of physically exfoliating it which has been proven to create micro-tears in the skin. Glycolic, Lactic, and Mandelic acids are the most commonly used alpha hydroxy acids, best suited to exfoliate the surface of the skin. Salicylic acid is the most commonly used beta hydroxy acid best for exfoliating into the deeper layers of the skin.
These are the strongest form of toner and contain a high proportion of alcohol (20–60%), antiseptic ingredients, water, and a humectant ingredient. These can be irritating and damaging to the skin as they can remove excess protective lipids as well as denature proteins in the skin when a high percentage of alcohol is used.
Now we are going to look at the safest form of face toner ( Organic face Toner), using all skin types toner as an example.
Toner – for all skin types
- 35g Distilled water
- 3g Glycerine
- 15g Aloe Vera
- 40g Orange blossom water
- 0.5g Preservative
- 5 Drops sweet orange essential oil
- 0.5g Xanthan gum
Method If you are not using the xanthan gum then you can simply mix all the ingredients together, and then pour into your chosen bottle. Once the toner is in the bottle (with the lid on) give it a good shake and enjoy.
Step 1: Pour the distilled water into a heatproof container or jug, then sprinkle in the xanthan gum. If it begins to lump, squash the lumps against the side of your container in an attempt to disperse them.
Step 2: As the xanthan gum softens in the water, the lumps will dissolve eventually and disappear. If you find it’s taking too long for the lumps to dissolve standing it in bath temperature water can speed up the process. But don’t get too hung up on the fully dissolving the lumps, as it will continue softening and dissolving after being placed in the bottle.
Step 3: Place all the remaining ingredients into a separate container (including the preservative if using) and mix well.
Step 4: If you’ve warmed the xanthan gum water mix, allow it to cool before adding the ingredients from the other container to it, and then give the whole thing a good mix.
Step 5: The thickness of your homemade skin toner is a personal preference, as many people quite like it a little on the gel side. But if it is too thick, add more floral water until you reach a consistency that you are happy with. Then pour the finished toner into the bottle.
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